External parasite whom feed on blood of various animals & humans separated around globe. Hard (Ixodidae) & soft (Argasidae) two types mostly found at moist & hot places. They can be cause of allergy leading to diseases. They may detect host by heat, odor or warmness of body, moisture.
Tick life cycle:
Ixodidae: These ticks may be grouped in following three groups depending upon their living habits.
One host: In this group ticks spend three life stages on a single host; only adult detach itself to lay eggs in natural environment. After hatching larva search some host to attach & feed blood meal; its molts into nymph on same host that leads molting instars to adult.
Two host: This type of ticks lives almost two years over two hosts; adult tick detach itself from 2nd host to lay eggs. After hatching larva stick themselves to 1st host for blood meal & turns into nymph. These nymphal ticks separate them from host to natural plants, grass, shrubs etc. & molts into adult
They search host to attach for blood meal & mating.
Three host: This type of ticks needs three host for life span up to three years. After detachment from host female tick lays egg in natural environment; on hatching larva searches its 1st host that may be birds or small animals for attachment & blood feed; detach and develop into nymph who attach to 2nd host like rodents for blood feed; they leave the host and develop into adult attach with 3rd host like humans or large animals.
Argasidae: These tick’s larva on hatching eggs attach to 1st host for blood feeding & detach for molting into nymph; that attach itself to 2nd host for blood meal & detach to molt into 2nd nymphal stage. This process is repeated until seven nymphal stage leads to adult. They may live from several months to years. They are unique to excrete excessive flued from body while feeding.
Impact on humans & control: These ticks may be vector of many diseases’ agents in humans. To control them various IPM techniques may use; Cleaning & Vacuuming, Dusting, Spraying and Pest Control Services.